Litmus Test

a test for acidity or alkalinity using litmus. a decisively indicative test.


nitpicking: looking for small or unimportant errors or faults, especially in order to criticize unnecessarily. 百般挑剔; 挑刺儿 niggle


offhand: adj: ungraciously or offensively nonchalant or cool in manner. adv: without previous thought or consideration, impromptu

henceforth 此后;从此以后

henceforth: from this point on from this time on from that time on  


permeate: spread throughout (something); pervade. 渗透; 渗入; 弥漫; 遍布

Grade School

grade school (North American): elementary school or primary school; a school for young children, usually the first 6 or 8...


benign: gentle; kindly. (of a disease) not harmful in effect: in particular, (of a tumor) not malignant. 温和的,仁慈的; 善良的; 有利于健康的;...


abide: be unable to tolerate (someone or something).

reckon with (or without)

reckon with (or without): take (or fail to take) into account.  

Collude 密谋,共谋

collude: conspire, plot Our English “lude” words (allude, collude, delude, elude, and prelude) are based on the Latin verb ludere,...


insurrection: a violent uprising against an authority or government.


sordid: involving ignoble actions and motives; arousing moral distaste and contempt. dirty or squalid  

Succor: aid, help

succor: aid, help.


waylay: to stop (someone who is going somewhere) 拦截,拦路  


spectacle: a visually striking performance or display.